Article in classical physics is all that has mass and occupies space and the size of the void. For the different material properties include size , mass and density . And thus forming what is known as the tangible universe . But currently it is impossible to define the material in this way for the fall of the separation between matter and energy , according to Einstein's famous equation E = mc 2. The material is part of our universe , and can not launch this term is behind him . And is currently believed that the article constituted 27% of the hired universe 0.4 % only natural substance , which is divided into two main types : material illuminated and non- illuminated , and constitute the first 0.4 % of the mass of the universe , while the second form 3.6 % of the mass . As for the other 23% are dark matter , and the remaining 73% is dark energy . Material can be in different situations created by the sets , and cases of natural material are mainly four : solid , liquid and gas , and plasma . While there are some cases which were produced in the laboratory and do not exist in nature. In addition to these , there are some rare cases of natural , which does not exist only in private places , such as the nuclei of neutron stars , which are the crushed material because of extreme density of the star and form a new state of the material.

Article consists of tiny particles called molecules , which are clusters of smaller particles are atoms. That in turn made ​​up of smaller particles . And is currently believed that the material consists of very small objects can not be divided , as it is not made ​​up of even smaller particles are the smallest thing . These particles are called the " elementary particles " , however this is not the installer after it is actually the smallest objects consisting of the material. Elementary particles are divided into three sections : the quarks and leptons and bosons ( the latter does not include elementary particles , but also of the particles.   

A Brief HistoryEdit

Human belief change much through the ages about the installation of this article where I have prevailed
Greeks philosophers believe that all the elements of nature consists of four basic elements are the " dirt " and " water " and " air" and " fire," and later added to the ether . It was this belief even Alasoralosty to the discovery of the chemical elements and the formation of the grouping of atoms CHEMICAL ligands . It was in the period of the belief that the atom is the smallest thing to exist and it can not be divided , that it was discovered that the atom consists of a nucleus containing the number of protons ( particles of positively charged ) and neutrons ( particles neutral charge ) and revolves around electrons ( negatively charged particles ) . He discovered then that these particles ( with the exception of the electron as it currently ranks among elementary particles ) itself is composed of quarks , and the quarks and leptons are fundamental particles constituting the substance ( but the fact that quarks and leptons objects are indivisible and do not consist of anything - it is a unit of construction younger material - remains unproven theory ) .

States of matterEdit

Detailed article : Cases Article

There are four major cases of well-known article , three of which are found in nature on the planet , a " solid " and " liquid " and " soft ." There is a fourth found in nature but not on the ground , even in outer space , a " plasma " . There are a few other cases do not exist in nature and produced only in laboratories , including the " super liquid fluidity " and " Bose - Einstein ." The so-called shift Article liquid to solid " freezing " (this is not a special name Btgmd water) , and the so-called transformation of the solid to liquid , " fusion " , and also can be turned into a gas directly without passing through the liquid state , and this is called " sublimation ," The transformation of material liquid to gas is called evaporation. The plasma , there is no common labels for change .


Detailed article: solid-state

Atoms in the solid material be interconnected and very close, so that can not be moved easily, and this is
220px-Small pile of rocks from the White River in Bethel, Vermont
what makes it hard. But nevertheless, the atoms in the solid material is constantly moving, even if it was not clear where they vibrate continuously. It is possible to know whether the solid inspect whether a specific form, in case you have a specific format can not be changed easily they are solid. And also can break the solid material so you do not go back to its original shape Pima can gases and liquids to return to the original forms (and this despite the fact that


Detailed article: a liquid state

Atoms in the liquid material be interconnected and close to each other, but they flow freely around each other. The difference between them and the solid state is the ability of the atoms on the flow and move freely in them. Have a fixed volume of liquid material does not change easily. This is despite the fact that their shape is never static, which depends on the vessel in which it contains. Unlike gases, liquids have a wife. One example is the case of liquid water.


Detailed article: gaseous state

Less coherent states of matter are gaseous state. Atoms can move freely where and in which direction. Unlike solids, gas does not have a form, or even a specific size, although the fluid even have specific volumes. And this could easily be a big gas pressure in a small bowl. It is exemplified by the air [1].


Detailed article : Plasma

Plasma torch reflect one of the most complex plasma phenomena , which comes including ( Wick ) . The
200px-Plasma-lamp 2
colors are the result of the relaxation of electrons from the state of arousal frenzy to lower energy state after re- united with ions . These processes lead to the issuance of the shape of the light spectrum characteristic of the gas raised

Case is distinct from the states of matter can be described as an ionized gas in which electrons are free and not tied to the atom or molecule (ie, that the corn be protons and neutrons without electrons ) . In contrast to the gases , the special characteristics of the plasma . Ionization leads to the exit of one or more of the electrons at the shed heat or certain energy . This electric charge makes the plasma electrically conductive so will respond strongly to electromagnetic fields . Examples of plasma lightning and the sun's surface [2] .

High fluidityEdit

Detailed article: super fluidity

High fluidity is a case of where the material takes some fluid properties that are curious about the ordinary. I discovered this case for the first time in liquid helium at a temperature of 2.17 Kelvin. They appear in the isotope helium-4, helium-3 where disappears internal friction of the liquid completely up to the viscosity of the fluid to zero. And this does not adhere to these fluids in any material, as it can be a very strange book materials pass through the normal fluid and prevent it from flowing, however, this does not affect the speed. The scientists discovered this case: "Pyotr Kapitsa" and "John Alan" and "without Misiner" in 1937 [3].

Density FaramaonahEdit

  Is a state of super-fluidity formed by Vermonat when the temperature is very low. It is similar to Bose - Einstein and occur under similar circumstances. But reversible, consisting Alfrumeonah density of fermions not bosons [4].  

Bose - EinsteinEdit

Is a state of super- fluidity formed by bosons at temperatures very close to absolute zero (unlike the " density Faramaonah " which is made up of fermions ) . In the low-density material , occurs when the temperature of 10.5 K or less . Under such circumstances , occupies a large part of bosons less quantum state of the external chemical latency , and at this point quantum effects become visible microscopic scales .

Been proven Bose - Einstein experimentally for the first time by various scientific groups in 1995 , where he was tried on the rubidium , sodium, lithium, using laser and evaporative cooling . Has been tried on the atomic hydrogen in 1998 .

The core of a neutron starEdit

Detailed articles : a neutron star     Pulsar

Model of the internal structure of the neutron star ( and there are other models ) [ 5 ] . At a depth of 10 km
200px-Neutron star cross-section
become a high- fluidity liquid core consists mainly of neutrons . [6]

Because of the density of nuclei intense neutron stars , where the material is in a different state from any other state of matter . Neutron stars have a mass of between 1.5 and 3 solar masses [ 7 ] [8] and the average diameter is 12 km [ 5 ] [9] , and this is gaining tremendous density makes the electrons and protons in the nucleus crushed to neutrons . And neutrons of fermions , and thus prevent it from collapsing core principle of exclusion Alpauli , so the problem of the so-called "Article neutron dissolved " (which is a special case of the article does not exist only in the cores of neutron stars ) [ 7 ] [8] .

Plasma quark - gluonEdit

Gluon particle is responsible for the initial formation of the strong nuclear force, the interaction between the particles, which is responsible for connecting the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Plasma quark - gluon is a hypothetical situation of material not previously monitored in nature and also not be produced in the laboratory, and is believed to have existed in the early period of the age of the universe [10]. At very high energy levels thought to be the strong nuclear force becomes very weak, where the nucleus of an atom to shatter packs of Alchorakat moving alone, and this is what distinguishes the plasma quark - gluon plasma from normal [11] [12].

Transparent aluminumEdit

 In 2009, scientists from the University of Oxford, led by an international team using Liz "flash" in Hamburg - Germany for the manufacture of a new case of the article, which is "transparent aluminum." And using the "flash" of the short pulse laser, they remove an electron from every aluminum atom, but they did not destroy or Akhalkhaloa its core. The result was Olmenyuma almost invisible ultraviolet (ie, that it can pass through it for the most part). Scientists believe who contributed to the discovery that will lead to greater research related to the science of planets and nuclear fusion. The effect lasted for aluminum for 40 femtosecond (ie, its transformation into a transparent long as this period only). [13]   

Material structure and compositionEdit

Molecules and atomsEdit

All materials in the world is made up of micro- objects called " atoms " . Each atom consists of a nucleus ( consisting of protons and neutrons ) and revolve around objects called electrons . What governs the type of maize ( any element to which it belongs ) is the number of protons , while the electrons do not only affect the stability of corn and some other things that do not control their kind . The neutrons are also can not change the type of item to which it belongs corn that change the number , but it has some effect , and if there are two atoms of the same element Badda different then the neutrons are called " two isotopes " [ 14 ] [15] . Each element has several isotopes , which are called the numbers (ie, there are no names or special characters , but is referred to in numbers such as " peer- helium -3 " ) .

Atoms can not be stabilized by any number for each of the three particles that make it up . Otherwise there were millions of elements in the universe , but in fact , the natural elements in the universe is only 92 ( and there are some elements that were produced in the laboratory ) . The reason it can not be an atom that are stable number of protons is higher than 92 , which dissolves into lighter elements . Also, most of the atoms in the number of electrons and protons equal , because the charge of an electron is 1 - El . A, while the proton charge is 1 + Rd . A. . Since neutrons are neutral charge , Istaoy When the number of protons and electrons in the atom becomes neutral charge , and this makes it stable . While most of the atoms tend non- neutral charge to split into simpler elements [14] . In addition , corn Vlasstaqrar there must be a sufficient number of neutrons in the nucleus. The reason is that the positively charged protons and then they repel each other , and you need a number of neutrons in order reservation together [16] . As for the method of keeping neutrons to protons in the nucleus are clustered , it is the interaction and the strong nuclear force, which carries both protons and neutrons ( Bhmlhm for Gluonat ) .

The atoms are interconnected with each other in what is known as " particles " . Each material has a different molecule from other materials . And a variety of atoms in the molecule are governed by the properties of the material. Sometimes contain atoms of the molecule for different items , and then the so-called " composite " . For example , the air is a compound [17] , because the air molecule contains many elements , including oxygen , nitrogen and carbon dioxide . [18] There are so simple molecules consisting of only a few atoms , such as a water molecule , which consists of three atoms ( Dhirta hydrogen and oxygen atom ) [19] . While there are very complex molecules , and the most complex molecules known is the protein molecule , which consists of dozens or even hundreds of thousands of atoms [17] .


Is a substance composed of particle counter any that nucleus are negatively charged while the electrons positively charged and there is no antimatter on the ground naturally only for limited periods of extremely In limited circumstances as a result of nuclear radiation and cosmic rays because the particles of antimatter when converge with particles of ordinary matter, they Taatlashiya together leaving gamma rays and pairs of particles and antiparticles.

Dark matter and dark energyEdit

In astronomy dark matter expression was supposed to rule can not be measured only by the gravitational effects of its own and without which no upright mathematically many models of interpretation of the first explosion of the universe and the movement of galaxies . It is believed that this material is composed of particles that can not be measured by current scientific potential or they fall in dimensions other than four dimensions known .

300px-Matter Distribution

While dark energy , a virtual forms of energy that fills the space , which has a negative pressure . According to general relativity , the effect of such a negative pressure is qualitatively similar to the opposite force of gravity on large scales . Assuming such an effect is currently the most popular explanation for the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate , as is a reasonable explanation for the large part of the material lost in the cosmic space ..

Assigned to ArticleEdit

In the first half of the twentieth century was one of Physicians, the British - and named Dirac Dirak - conducts research on the equations of electrons , and electrons as we know is the particle negatively charged orbiting the nucleus of an atom , and while doing this research discovered that the equations have two solutions , not a single solution . Any one of us deal with the equations of the second degree can easily be aware of this situation. Vmadelat second-tier box containing an unknown quantity , and the amount of square is always positive , given Vhasal hit 2x2 4 as well as the multiplication of 2-2x- is also given the same result. This means that the square root of 4 is either 2 or - 2. The Dirac equations were more complex than this example, but the principle is the same , it has got two sets of equations , one for Aktronat negatively charged and the other for unknown body is positively charged . He has Dirac some attempts unsuccessful to explain the mystery of this particle unknown , it has been believed in its existence , but physicists ignored then the idea of ​​a particle positively charged as possible to be a companion of the electrons just as it ignores the engineer who deals with equations of second-class solutions that are given Otoala or blocks negative .

After several years of work of the Dirac theory in the early thirties discovered raised this particle unknown in a device called the Chamber of fog (cloud chambre), and when the study of the influence of magnetic field on these effects discovered that the mass of the particle is equal to the mass of the electron , and he carries a positive charge and is equal to the charge of the electron and then named this particle Baqran electron (Antielectron) or Balboziron (Positron) and then began to search for evidence of other particles , it means the presence of a spouse for Electron existence is evidence of the particles other , and actually began to discover these clues one follows the other and began to be broken down into types will not go into details and will only say the end result It is the presence of a spouse , but each and every particle of the body.

And the discovery of a spouse article tells us that there may be another world corresponds to our physical world and consists of particles of any evidence of a spouse article . What is this world which consists of assigned article ? This is a question that no one could answer it , land is mainly composed of material and not from evidence material , but evidence of a substance that is produced in cosmic rays (cosmic rays) or in particle accelerators (Particle accelerator) do not live long in the atmosphere ground , once speed to drop some thing that they had to face the painful fate that can not escape him, and he who is right or extermination by the corresponding article that fills the atmosphere of the Earth . When you meet with a particle or a companion article dispels paired with each other and the two disappear in something that looks like the explosion converts both into energy , mostly in the form of gamma rays .


States of matter Retrieved on April 17, 2010     ^ Crookes presented a lecture to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in Sheffield, on Friday, 22 August 1879 [1] [2]     ^ Science magazine - the coldest gas in the universe Retrieved on April 17, 2010     ^ M. Greiner, C.A. Regal, S. Jin (2003). "A molecular Bose-Einstein condensate emerges from a Fermi sea". arXiv: cond-mat/0311172 [cond-mat.stat-mech].     ^ Jump up to: A B P. Haensel, A.Y. Potekhin, A.Û. Potehin, D.G. Yakovlev (2007). Neutron Stars. Springer. Page 11 . ISBN 0387335439.     ^ J.-P. Luminet, A. Bullough, A. King (1992). Black Holes. Cambridge University Press. Page 111, Fig. 25 . ISBN 0521409063.     ^ Jump up to: A B D.R. Danielson (2001). "neutron + star" & lr = & as_brr = 0 # PPA455, M1 The Book of the Cosmos. Da Capo Press. Page 455 . ISBN 0738204986.     ^ Jump up to: A B M.A. Strain (2004). "exclusion + principle" & lr = & as_brr = 0 Cosmic Entity. iUniverse (self-published). Page 50 . ISBN 0595301258.     ^ A neutron star's density increases as its mass increases, and, for most Equations of State (EOS), its radius decreases in a non-linear way. For example, EOS radius predictions for a 1.35 M star are: FPS 10.8 km, UU 11.1 km, APR 12.1 km, and L 14.9 km. For a more massive 2.1 M star radius predictions are: FPS undefined, UU 10.5 km, APR 11.8 km, and L 15.1 km. (NASA mass radius graph [ dead link ] )     ^ J. Letessier, J. Rafelski (2002). Hadrons and Quark-Gluon Plasma. Cambridge University Press. Page xi. ISBN 0521385369.     ^ Brookhaven National Laboratory (18 April 2005). "RHIC Scientists Serve Up" Perfect "Liquid". Press Release . Retrieved 2009-09-15.     ^ W.A. Zajc (2008). "The fluid nature of quark-gluon plasma". Nuclear Physics A 805: 283c-294c. doi: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.02.285. Archive chi : 0802.3552 .     ^ Publisher = "Science Daily" ( Science Daily ) " transparent aluminum is a new case of the article . '" July 27, 2009 . Check it out on 2009-07-30 .     ^ Jump up to: A B chemical properties of elements and compounds Retrieved on April 20, 2010     ^ Atoms and elements Retrieved on April 20, 2010     ^ Atomic structure Retrieved on April 20, 2010     ^ Jump up to: A B book " Physics for All" , written by " 's . Andoa to " and " a . Kitaijurodsky " was published in the Soviet Union - Moscow , the Arabic translation of "House of Mir Printing & Publishing " 1978     ^ Installation of air Retrieved on April 20, 2010     ^ Water and structure Retrieved on April 20, 2010